Buddha’s advice to his son – Part 3

This is the last of a three-part post about the lessons given to Rāhula, Buddha’s son. 

At this point Rāhula is now in his twenties. He has devoted his life to Buddhist training and was known to enjoy his practice very much. His father now saw that he was close to enlightenment and decides to give him a push in the right direction. 

Here is the story:

Buddha was staying near a place called Sāvatthī. Whilst meditating, the following thought arose in his mind:

“Mature are in Rāhula those qualities that bring deliverance to maturity. Should I not now give further guidance to Rāhula, for the extinction of the corruptions?”

Having robed himself in the forenoon, the Buddha took his bowl and robe, and entered Sāvatthī for alms. Having completed his alms round he returned and ate. After the meal he addressed the venerable Rāhula:

“Take your mat, Rāhula. We shall go to the Andha Grove, and spend the day there.”

“Yes, Lord,” replied Rāhula. He took his mat and followed close behind his father.

Having entered the Andha Grove they sat down at the foot of a certain tree.

The Buddha asked Rāhula: “What do you think, Rāhula; is the eye permanent or impermanent?”

“Impermanent, Lord.”

“Is that which is impermanent, painful or pleasant”?

“It is painful Lord.”

“Is it justifiable, then, to think, of that which is impermanent, pain-laden and subject to change—’This is mine;” this I am; this is my self’ ?”

“Certainly not, Lord.”

“What do you think, Rāhula, are forms (visual objects) permanent or impermanent?”

“Impermanent, Lord.”

“Is that which is impermanent, painful or pleasant?”

“It is painful, Lord.”

“Is it justifiable, then, to think, of that which is impermanent, pain-laden and subject to change—’This is mine; this I am; this is my self ‘?”

“Certainly not, Lord.”

The Buddha continued in this manner, asking about eye-consciousness (visual contact), smells, sounds, tastes, feelings, perceptions, mental formations, and consciousness.

Rāhula answer each one in turn.

The Buddha then said: “The learned noble disciple, Rāhula, who sees thus, gets disenchanted by the eye, for forms, for visual consciousness, visual contact, and for that which arises conditioned by visual contact, namely all feelings, perceptions, mental formations and consciousness.”

“He gets disenchanted by the ear and sounds, nose and smells, tongue and tastes, body and tangibles, mind and ideas, gets disenchanted for the corresponding types of consciousness and contact, and for that which arises conditioned by that contact, namely all that belongs to feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness.”

“In him who gets disenchanted, Rāhula, passion fades out.”

“With the fading out of passion he is liberated.”

“Thus liberated, the knowledge arises in him: ‘Liberated am I, birth is exhausted, fulfilled is the Holy Life, done what should be done, and nothing further remains after this’. Thus he knows.”

Glad at heart, the venerable Rāhula rejoiced in the words of the Blessed One.

During this lesson the mind of the venerable Rāhula was freed from the corruptions – clinging no more.

“Whatever is subject to origination is subject to cessation.”

Simile of the Lute

“Suppose there were a king or king’s minister who had never heard the sound of a lute before. He might hear the sound of a lute and say, ‘What, my good men, is that sound — so delightful, so tantalizing, so intoxicating, so ravishing, so enthralling?’ They would say, ‘That, sire, is called a lute, whose sound is so delightful, so tantalizing, so intoxicating, so ravishing, so enthralling.’

Then he would say, ‘Go & fetch me that lute.’ They would fetch the lute and say, ‘Here, sire, is the lute whose sound is so delightful, so tantalizing, so intoxicating, so ravishing, so enthralling.’

He would say, ‘Enough of your lute. Fetch me just the sound.’ Then they would say, ‘This lute, sire, is made of numerous components, a great many components. It’s through the activity of numerous components that it sounds: that is, in dependence on the body, the skin, the neck, the frame, the strings, the bridge, and the appropriate human effort. Thus it is that this lute — made of numerous components, a great many components — sounds through the activity of numerous components.’

“Then the king would split the lute into ten pieces, a hundred pieces. Having split the lute into ten pieces, a hundred pieces, he would shave it to splinters. Having shaved it to splinters, he would burn it in a fire. Having burned it in a fire, he would reduce it to ashes. Having reduced it to ashes, he would winnow it before a high wind or let it be washed away by a swift-flowing stream. He would then say, ‘A sorry thing, this lute — whatever a lute may be — by which people have been so thoroughly tricked & deceived.’

– Gautama Buddha